海绵聚落—诗意栖居的营造:紫晶国际会舍

来源: vaii.cafa.edu.cn 时间:


正拱与反拱建筑间的对望
The gaze between positive arch and reverse arch buildings
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
客房建筑傍晚夜景
Night view of the guest building
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
中会议厅二层平台
The second floor platform of Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
小会议厅北侧立面
North facade of Conference Hall Ⅴ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


中央美术学院建筑学院院长
视觉艺术高精尖创新中心自然建筑工作室负责人朱锫教授

撰文:朱锫

紫晶国际会舍坐落于江西省景德镇市区西侧的山峦溪壑之中。场地最初是一片原始自然、丛林密布的山间谷地,其后被削山填壑平整出一大片狭长的空场,作为汽车驾校的训练场地。山体的疤痕清晰地记录了城市化的鲁莽、贪婪。紫晶国际会舍或许是一次机会,让我们尝试一种新的态度、方法,去重新建立自然环境与人工造物之间和谐友善的关系。


场地位置
Site


与我们的传统建造文化不同,今天的城市建设很少从节能和人体舒服度的角度去探寻建筑智慧性的建造。所以,我们更希望这组建筑能充分尊重当地文化和当地人的生存智慧,并从中获得启发,这也是我们一直以来在不同地域的建筑实践中所寻求的根源之道。坐上婺源到景德镇的高铁,经常可以看到一个个村落自然地镶嵌在山谷溪流之间,它们大多背山面阔、坐北朝南,简单朴素的民宅彼此簇拥,散落在山脚下,节省出山谷间相对平整的土地留给农耕。远远望去,这些村落建筑就如同一个个立方体扎堆在一起,却展现了人造物与自然环境之间的完美结合。

当地传统民居
Local traditional residence朱锫草图
Zhu Pei's sketch


村落、农田与山体所映射出的建筑和环境的大关系,既是当地人对自然风水观念的传承,也是对地理气候条件的积极应对。古人栖居在这片土地,思考的是如何从自然中获取生存资源,同时保育大地一直处于生机和稳定的状态。他们用最简单却又最智慧的筑造方式扎根于此,在日复一日的生活中滋养保护着脚下的生存空间,造就了人、自然、建筑之间的“血缘关系”。

研究模型
Study model
研究模型
Study model


Zijing International Conference Camp is located in the mountains and ravines on the west side of Jingdezhen, Jiangxi. The site was originally a primitive and natural mountain valley with dense forests. Then it became a large narrow, extended field created by people cutting down mountains and filling ravines. We are thinking about can this project be an opportunity for us to try a new attitude and method to re-establish a harmonious and friendly relationship between the natural environment and artificial creations. The relationship between the buildings and the environment reflected by the village, farmland and mountains is not only the inheritance of the local people's concept of natural Fengshui, but also a positive response to the geographical and climatic conditions. The ancients lived in this land, thinking about how to obtain living resources from nature, and at the same time keep the land in a state of vitality and stability. They use the simplest but most intelligent construction method to take root here, nourish and protect the living space under their feet in their daily life, and shape the consanguinity of the people, nature and the architecture.



思考如何在自然环境中建造原本属于城市的“会议中心”这一命题,是我们构想这组建筑的关键。基于当地古村落与山水自然之间关系的启发,引入聚落的概念,把“会议中心”转译为“会舍”,将所有功能居于一体的“会议中心”超尺度建筑,转化为功能分散的单元式聚落“会舍”建筑,使其消解在群山之中,每座建筑单体都被推向山脚两侧,中间平坦开阔的地面被空出来作为交往的公共场所。整组建筑伴随山势的走向水平展开,宛若江西古村落一般,连结现状山体,织补起已被人工破坏的场地。


朱锫草图
Zhu Pei's sketch
建筑栖居于群山之中
The buildings inhabit the mountains
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
屋顶平面图
Roof plan
正拱与反拱建筑间的对望
The gaze between positive arch and reverse arch buildings
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
大会议厅二层平台与柱廊空间
The colonnade space and
the second floor platform of Conference Hall Ⅱ
张钦泉 Zhang Qinquan
从大会议厅看向中会议厅
Looking from Conference Hall Ⅱ
to Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


回望人类建造的历史,首先是一种基于生存本能和生活经验的行为,是当地的环境养成和影响了人们的建造方式,民居的建筑特征也直接体现出本土的生存智慧。江西民居的地域文化特征很好地体现了自然和人文环境对当地建筑的双重影响。景德镇四季分明,夏季潮湿多雨,冬季寒冷多风。为适应气候条件的残酷性,当地民居很注重遮阳避雨和自然通风。紫晶国际会舍这组藏匿于群山之中的会舍聚落,应当继承当地传统民居的智慧,兼收并蓄,灵活且策略性地吸纳自然的空气、光线,容纳人的活动,塑造一种自然开放、多孔流动、“会”“舍”相容且深深嵌入在山谷之中的建筑群落。

从大会议厅前广场看向中会议厅
Looking from the square of  Conference Hall Ⅱ
to Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
中会议厅入口柱廊
The entrance colonnade of Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


Inspired by the relationship between the local ancient villages and nature, the concept of settlement is adopted to transform the super-scale building of the "conference center" that integrates all functions into "conference and camp" buildings with scattered functions, making it be dissolved in the mountains. This group of buildings hidden in the mountains should inherit the traditional wisdom of the local, be eclectic like a sponge, flexibly and strategically absorb natural air, light, and accommodate human activities to create a natural, open, porous and flowing form of conference center.



想要实现这样一组建筑,结合场地的复杂性,探索一种简单、朴素、真实又易于建造的结构形式就成为关键。为了在富有表现力的结构与材料中体现人、活动和建筑空间三者之间的血缘关系,最早构想的结构单元由单向大跨度的拱梁和两端支撑拱梁的钢筋混凝土结构墙体构成。拱梁结构单元可以复制叠加并随山体不断变化,而且结构与结构之间也自然产生了很多孔洞与缝隙,自然光线可以渗透进建筑内部,从而彻底打破了常规的黑空间会议模式。从建构的角度上考量,建筑形式即是结构形式本身,几乎没有围护结构。

朱锫草图
Zhu Pei's sketch
客房建筑入口
The entrance of a guest building
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
大会议厅序厅
The lobby of Conference Hall Ⅱ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


我们试图通过结构的真实性与诗意化表达,找寻结构形式与建筑形式的同构关系,重拾其中蕴含的生存智慧和文化意义,以此来塑造一组朴素又充满诗意的“会舍”建筑。

中会议厅序厅
The lobby of Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
中会议厅室内空间
Interior space of Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


大量向下倒垂、充满结构张力的反向单曲拱反复组合变化,隐喻经过变异的中国重檐建筑形式。中国传统建筑中特有的富有弹性的屋檐曲线、由举架形成的略有反曲的屋面弧度,都被充分捕捉在紫晶国际会舍层层叠叠富有变化韵律的巨大弧面中。错落的拱体调动光的折射与漫射,结合天窗的开合与窗帘的控制,使室内空间实现了自然采光和自然通风的最大可能。

大会议厅二层室内空间
Interior space on the second floor
of Conference Hall Ⅱ
朱锫建筑设计事务所 Studio Zhu Pei
中会议厅室内空间
Interior space of Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
小会议厅室内空间
Interior space of Conference Hall Ⅴ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
VIP会议厅室内空间
Interior space of VIP Conference Hall
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


In order to realize such a group of buildings, combining the complexity of the site, and exploring a simple, authentic, and easy-to-build structural form becomes the key. A lot of inverted single-curved arches that hang down and are full of structural tension are repeatedly combined and changed as roof units, which is a metaphor for the mutated Chinese double-eave architectural form. The unique elastic eaves curves in ancient buildings and the slightly recurved roof language formed by the raised frames are fully captured in Zijing International Conference Camp's huge curved surfaces, which are layered and full of changing rhythms. The staggered arches change the refraction and diffusion of light to adjust natural light, combined with the opening and closing of skylights and the control of curtains, the indoor space realizes the maximum possibility of natural lighting and ventilation.



紫晶国际会舍强烈地展现出了“自然建筑”理论中“不完整的完整性”的理念,从3个维度上实现建筑和山体自然环境的充分融合。在水平维度上,紫晶国际会舍的聚落形态在与自然交界的边界上呈现出里出外进、参差不齐的轮廓边缘,就像人的两只手十指交握,建筑借助自身形式的不完整,与自然环境有机地编织、缝合,融为一体,消除建筑与自然环境之间的边界。

首层平面图
Ground floor plan
客房西北向鸟瞰
Northwest aerial view of guest buildings
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
会议建筑
Conference building
张钦泉 Zhang Qinquan
反拱下的客房建筑入口
The entrance of a guest building
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


在垂直维度上,单元式的结构体系也最大程度地展现了山地建筑的优势,可以随着山体走势高低叠落,看似简单的单元组合,却表现出富有力量的节奏感与创造惊喜的丰富性。舞动、升起的众多道拱形屋顶紧紧拥抱陡然升起的山形,在它们之间生成了巨大张力,也限定了在它们之间的建筑空间。自然地形、建筑、人的活动共同谱写了生动、和谐的乐章。

剖面图
Sections


再有,在空间维度上,建筑与自然环境虚实相涵、内外相生,大量的半户外空间和连系山谷的平台将建筑与山体织补起来,几何性的消解,在建筑的边缘形成更加丰富的空间感受。

大会议厅入口
The entrance of Conference Hall Ⅱ
张钦泉 Zhang Qinquan
中会议厅二层平台
The second floor platform of Conference Hall Ⅲ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


为了回应南方气候,紫晶国际会舍布置有一系列灰空间,不同空间尺度的会议室之间,都连接有多处檐下的回廊、步道与平台,宽阔的出檐遮阳且避雨,为景德镇炎热的夏季创造阴影下的漫步空间。与惯有的会议中心平面组织方式不同,使用者即可以从每座建筑的主入口进入前厅,再走向不同的会议室、休息室、宴会厅,也可以穿过各个衔接山体的步道、回廊、庭院,直接进入不同功能的内部。

前往客房的通廊
The corridor to the guest room
朱锫建筑设计事务所 Studio Zhu Pei


6座客房单体亦是如此,从不同层高的房间走向室外,都能拥有驻足停靠的观景平台,或曲折进入林中的小径。这些经历都颠覆了常规的会议建筑与酒店建筑能带给人的体验,把会议活动的严肃与人的闲暇通过环境的塑造关联结合在一起。

客房室内
Guest room interior view
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
比邻的客房建筑
The guest buildings
苏圣亮 Su ShengliangThe guest buildings
Su Shengliang客房建筑立面
The facade of a guest building
朱锫建筑设计事务所 Studio Zhu Pei


几座大中型会议单体的第一个单元拱体屋面下,是若干横截面不尽相同的混凝土异形柱,以看似随机的方式林立在主入口前。层叠交错的异形柱随着视角的移动,宽窄形态不断变化,倾斜射下的光线擦过坚硬且圆润的柱体,被捕捉为混凝土表层温润的釉面光泽和交织流转的光影。

朱锫草图
Zhu Pei's sketch
树影斑驳下的柱廊空间
The colonnade space under the mottled shadow of trees
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
树影斑驳下的柱廊空间
The colonnade space under the mottled shadow of trees
朱锫建筑设计事务所 Studio Zhu Pei
大会议厅二层平台与柱廊通过桥相连
The outdoor platform on the second floor of Conference Hall Ⅱ
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


人们可以在承载拱体屋面的混凝土山墙下久坐,透过墙面的异形孔洞,瞥见墙后悬挂的楼梯一隅。这样海绵式的“多孔”建筑,不仅可以包容阳光、空气、声音,更重要的是,可以承载人的活动与情感。

光影下的柱廊空间
The colonnade in light and shadow
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang
拱梁下的下沉庭院
The sunken courtyard under the arch
朱锫建筑设计事务所 Studio Zhu Pei
从下沉庭院看向中会议厅
Looking towards Conference Hall Ⅲ
from the sunken courtyard
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


清晨的朝阳薄雾,缠绵的阴雨虫鸣,任何时候,紫晶国际会舍都给人一种宁静、朴素、舒缓的栖居感受。


Guest buildings are naturally embedded in the mountains
客房建筑自然地嵌入山体中
Guest buildings are naturally embedded in the mountains
苏圣亮 Su Shengliang


The concept of "incomplete integrity" in Zhu Pei’s design philosophy of "Architecture of Nature" is strongly reflected in this project, and the full integration of architecture and nature is realized from three dimensions. First of all, from the horizontal dimension, the settlement form presents uneven contour edges on the boundary with nature, so that it forms an organic weaving, stitching, and integration with the natural environment, eliminating the boundary between the building and the natural environment. Secondly, in the vertical dimension, the unit structure system also shows the advantages of mountainous architecture to the greatest extent. It can be stacked up and down with the trend of the mountain. In order to respond to the southern climate, a series of gray spaces are created. The meeting rooms of different spatial scales are connected with corridors, walkways, and platforms under the eaves. The wide eaves provide shade and shelter from the rain, creating shadows in the hot summer of Jingdezhen. Such a sponge-like porous building can not only contain sunlight, air, and sound, but more importantly, it can carry human activities and emotions.

项目名称:紫晶国际会舍
设计年份:2018-2020年
建成年份:2022年
基地面积:71544㎡
建筑面积:40107㎡
结构形式:钢筋混凝土拱梁+剪力墙结构

建筑、室内、景观设计:朱锫建筑设计事务所
主持建筑师:朱锫
设计团队:Mauro Pagliaretti,张顺,刘亦安,由昌臣,刘伶,纪明,陈艳红,韩默,丛啸宇

结构、机电、景观、室内合作设计:中国美术学院风景建筑设计研究院
幕墙顾问:珠海市晶艺玻璃工程有限公司
照明顾问:北京宁之境照明设计有限责任公司
声学顾问:杭州智达建筑科技有限公司

业主:景德镇黑猫集团有限责任公司
总承建商:中国建筑一局(集团)有限公司,中建一局华江建设有限公司
摄影:苏圣亮,张钦泉,朱锫建筑设计事务所

 

Project name: Zijing International Conference Camp

Design Year: 2018-2020
Completion Year: 2022
Site area: 71,544sqm
Total floor area: 40,107sqm
Structure: Reinforced concrete arch beam + shear wall

Architecture, Interior and Landscape Design: Studio Zhu Pei
Design Principal: Zhu Pei
Design Team: Mauro Pagliaretti, Zhang Shun, Liu Yian, You Changchen, Liu Ling, Jiming, Chen Yanhong, Han Mo, Cong Xiaoyu

Cooperative Design in Structural, MEP, Landscape, and Interior: The Design Institute of Landscape & Architecture China Academy of Art
Fa?ade Consultant: King Glass Engineering Co., Ltd.
Lighting Consultant: Ning Field Lighting Design Co., Ltd.
Acoustic Consultant: Hangzhou Zhida Architectural Science and Technology Co., Ltd.

Client: Black Cat Group
Main Contractor: China Construction First Group Corporation Limited, Huajiang Construction Co., Ltd. of China Construction First Group
Photography by Su Shengliang, Zhang Qinquan, Studio Zhu Pei

 

主编/董慧萍
编辑/Miaom
文图来源/朱锫建筑 编辑/王思琦 审核/夏瑶瑶、刘亦安